How does "prison" differ from "jail" differ from "penitentiary"?

A prison is “a place of confinement especially for lawbreakers; specifically: an institution (as one under state jurisdiction) for confinement of persons convicted of serious crimes.”

A jail is “a place of confinement for persons held in lawful custody; specifically: such a place under the jurisdiction of a local government (as a county) for the confinement of persons awaiting trial or those convicted of minor crimes.”

A penitentiary is “a public institution in which offenders against the law are confined for detention or punishment; specifically: a state or federal prison in the United States.”

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